Argentina’s President-Elect Javier Milei to Close Central Bank, Implement Dollarization

argentina milei central bank

In a surprising turn of events, Argentina’s newly elected President, Javier Milei, has set the stage for a radical economic transformation. A staunch libertarian economist, agenda of Milei includes shutting down the central bank, embracing dollarization, and privatizing state-owned enterprises. This bold move, although met with mixed reactions, aims to address Argentina’s chronic economic issues and usher in a new era of stability and growth.

Dollarization: A Stabilizing Force

Milei’s decision to adopt the U.S. dollar as Argentina’s official currency, known as dollarization, marks a departure from traditional economic policies. Citing the need to break the cycle of currency crises and inflation that has plagued Argentina, Milei believes that anchoring the economy to a stable currency will attract foreign investment and restore confidence. However, this move is not without its challenges.

Challenges of Dollarization:

  1. Current Account Deficit: Argentina faces the challenge of managing its large current account deficit, where imports exceed exports. This could exert upward pressure on the dollar’s price, potentially impacting affordability for Argentine citizens and businesses.
  2. Transition Period: The closure of the central bank and the shift to a dollarized economy require careful planning. The winding down of the central bank must be orderly, and the government must take measures to protect the banking system during this transition.
  3. Potential Inequality: There is a risk that dollarization could lead to increased inequality, favoring those with access to dollars over those who do not. Milei’s administration will need to address this concern to ensure a fair economic landscape.

Central Bank Closure: A Departure from Tradition

The decision to close Argentina’s central bank, Banco Central de la República Argentina (BCRA), is a significant move away from decades of economic policy. Milei contends that the central bank has been a source of inflation and instability, advocating for the market to determine the money supply instead. However, this move raises questions about the potential risks and benefits.

Potential Risks of Central Bank Closure:

  1. Economic Instability: Closing the central bank could introduce economic instability and lead to a devaluation of the peso, affecting the purchasing power of the population.
  2. Social Unrest: The closure of the central bank, coupled with other proposed reforms, may result in social unrest as job losses occur, and savings diminish.
  3. Loss of Confidence: Investors may lose confidence in Argentina’s economy, potentially causing capital flight and a decline in overall investment.

Potential Benefits of Central Bank Closure:

  1. Economic Stability: Milei argues that eliminating the central bank will contribute to economic stability by removing what he sees as a source of inflation.
  2. Reduced Government Spending: Privatization of state-owned enterprises and a reduction in government spending could help address the budget deficit, a key element of Milei’s economic plan.

Privatization: Unlocking Economic Efficiency

Milei’s proposal to privatize state-owned enterprises is grounded in the belief that the private sector is more efficient and will stimulate increased investment and job creation. This aspect of his plan seeks to address longstanding issues of corruption and inefficiency within these enterprises.

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Benefits of Privatization:

  1. Increased Efficiency: Transferring state-owned enterprises to the private sector is expected to enhance efficiency, improve productivity, and stimulate economic growth.
  2. Job Creation: A more efficient and competitive private sector could lead to increased investment, translating into job creation and economic expansion.


Argentina stands at a crossroads with President Milei’s unconventional economic plan. The adoption of dollarization, closure of the central bank, and privatization of state-owned enterprises represent a bold attempt to break free from the country’s economic troubles. While supporters see this as a necessary step towards stability and growth, critics fear potential risks and social implications.

The success of Milei’s economic agenda will depend on the careful navigation of challenges associated with dollarization, the orderly closure of the central bank, and the effective implementation of privatization. As Argentina embarks on this uncharted path, only time will reveal the true impact of these radical economic reforms on the nation’s future.

Additional Information:

  1. Detailed Implementation Plan: The government is yet to release a comprehensive plan outlining the detailed steps for implementing dollarization.
  2. Flexible Dollarization: It remains unclear whether Argentina will adopt a full-fledged dollarization or a more flexible approach, allowing the coexistence of the U.S. dollar and the Argentine peso.
  3. Key Issues to Address: The government must tackle crucial issues, including determining the exchange rate and addressing existing debts, before successfully implementing dollarization.

Javier Milei’s Background:

  1. Milei is a libertarian economist and political commentator.
  2. Leader of the Avanza Libertad party.
  3. Elected President of Argentina in 2023, signaling a significant shift towards the right in the country’s political spectrum.

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